When you're bottle feeding puppies, it's important to use a puppy milk substitute that meets their special dietary needs.
puppy formulas that are carefully prepared to do just that can usually
be bought at your veterinarians office or from large pet stores.
If your dog is pregnant, I would recommend getting some puppy milk in advance, so it's handy if you should need it. Feeding
new born puppies is very similar to feeding new born human babies in
that they need to nurse frequently! Every two hours during the day and probably once or twice during the night in the very beginning.
This adorable video shows a tiny French Bulldog being bottle fed...
If you're trying to feed a tiny, toy or miniature breed pup, they MAY be too small to feed well from a bottle, in that case there is another option you can try.
Click here to see how to feed a tiny puppy with an eye-dropper.
Okay, so let's take a look at how to bottle feed puppies yourself, and the equipment that you need:
Obviously his mommas milk is the best food for a new born puppy.
If at all possible, try to encourage the mom to allow the pups to nurse
for at least the first 24 hours, as this is when they can receive the
benefits of the colostrum (powerful anti-bodies and infection fighting
pre-milk). Obviously this isn't always possible, but makes a big
difference to the puppies.
on the size of the breed your pups belong to, you can feed them using a
small syringe (3ml), special bottles designed for puppies or kittens,
or baby bottles. The baby-bottle nipples that are specially designed for
premature babies often work well.
are no holes in the nipple, use a needle (held over a flame to heat and
sterilize) to pierce two holes. The milk should drip out SLOWLY when the
bottle is held upside down. If it runs out the pup could choke or
aspirate (breath in) the milk.
replacement formula comes in powder form, or ready-made in cartons. The
ready-made is easier to use, but quite a bit more expensive. If you're
using the powdered version, be sure to mix it well as you don't want any
lumps in it.
Cool formula to room temperature before feeding it to a
puppy. You can test it on the inside of your wrist to make sure it's not
too hot or too cold, it should feel barely warm.
Always feed a puppy face down on your lap or a table top,
never hold it on it's back or upright, as this could cause it to choke
or breath in the milk. This can lead to pneumonia and possible death.
puppies who are being bottle fed usually do well on 6 feedings per day.
They should be able to go from 11pm until 6am as long as they are
receiving 6 feeds in 24 hours. Smaller puppies may still need to be fed
in the night for the first few weeks.
By the time the puppies are 3
weeks old, 4 feeds a day is enough, and weaning can begin at around 4
weeks of age. Puppies who are under a month old need approx.
3.5 - 3.75 calories per ounce of body weight, every 24 hours. So, for
example, a 6oz puppy would need approx 22.5 calories per day.
milk replacers have about 1 calorie per ml, so that 22.5ml of formula
can be divided between the 6 feeds. This pup would then need approx.
3.75ml of milk per feed.Of course, this is a rough estimate, some
puppies need more, some less. As a general 'rule of thumb', it's better
to feed smaller feeds more often, than larger amounts less frequently.
also recommended that you 'burp' new born puppies, half-way through
each feeding. Do this the way you would with a human baby - by holding
the pup up against your shoulder and gently rubbing or patting its'
If a puppy is getting enough to eat and
is warm and comfortable, he will look plump, feel warm and sleep most of
the time between feeds. If a puppy is crying a lot, is always wriggling
and squirming, or feels cool/cold and seems lethargic, you have a
problem. In these instances, you should consult your veterinarian right
To help puppies who are having
difficulty feeding, or aren't getting enough nutrition, you can use a
vitamin and nutrient-rich paste called Nutrical. I've used it myself for puppies who aren't thriving the way they should, and it is definitely something to keep on hand when you are hand-raising new born puppies. In my experience the best brand is 'Evsco' (linked to above) and puppies seem to prefer it!
try to feed a puppy who feels chilled or cold, or seems to be sick. If a
new born pup gets too cold, his organs start to close down and feeding
him will only make things worse. A cold puppy who isn't eating will get
dehydrated quickly which is very serious.
If you can't get the pup
warmed up enough to suckle fairly quickly, get him to your vet as he may
need IV fluids and extra help.
feeding you'll need to help the puppies to pee/poop by gently rubbing
their lower belly/genital area.
CLICK HERE to read more about all the other things you need to do in order to take care of new born puppies properly (including temperature control, tube feeding, weight gain monitoring and more).
Hand Feeding A Tiny/Toy Breed Puppy
Bottle feeding can be difficult for small breed puppies, especially the weaker ones or the 'runts' can be extremely tiny and weak.
If you're in this situation with a very little puppy, you can try using an eye-dropper instead. Even the teeniest puppies are usually able to suck from these.
If they're too weak to suckle to begin with you can gently squeeze the milk into the side of their mouths at first (into the 'pocket' of the cheek, this helps to prevent the pup from choking, gagging or inhaling the milk).
You could also use a syringe to gently 'inject' milk into the side of a tiny puppy's mouth in the same way, but once the pup is strong enough to suckle change over to an eye-dropper as that works better in the long run.
As your pup grows and puts on weight you should be able to 'graduate' to a bottle of some type, even if it's one designed for wild animals, or other pets such as baby rabbits and so on.
Check out this great video which shows a very small Dachshund puppy ('Baby Girl') being dropper-fed
Tube Feeding a puppy
Sometimes a puppy is too small or weak to suckle, or simply refuses to try.
In this situation you need to find another way to get the milk into him.
Tube feeding is usually recommended for puppies who can't/won't nurse.
There are risks involved because an incorrectly placed tube could flood the puppy's lungs.
It's very important to be shown how to do this by an expert, usually an established breeder or your veterinarian is the best person to help you with this.
Watching an experienced person tube feed a puppy and then practicing doing it yourself under supervision is the best way to learn.
I definitely DON'T recommend even attempting tube feeding without proper instruction and practice. It's quite likely that things will go wrong.
You will also need to get the right equipment. This puppy tube feeding kit has what you'll need to get started.
Choose the 3.5 size for small breed puppies, 8.0 for mid-sized puppies and 10.0 for large breed puppies.
SPONGE FEEDING A puppy
Sponge feeding is a safer, gentler option to tube feeding IF your pup is strong enough to suck.
For this method you use can a small cosmetic sponge cut to approximate the size of the momma dog's teat, and also cut a small hole in the opposite end of the sponge.
Fill a small syringe with the right amount of milk for the feeding and insert it into the hole you cut in the sponge.
Dip the other end (teat shaped) of the sponge in the milk and encourage your pup to suck on it. You may need to gently insert the sponge into his mouth and squeeze a few drops of milk out to encourage him.
Once he's sucking, slowly press the plunger on the syringe to pour milk into the sponge and keep it flowing slowly so the pup doesn't swallow air.. but slowly enough that he won't be flooded with it either.
This video shows you how to sponge feed a puppy:
Newborn Puppy Supplies
Now you know HOW to bottle feed those puppies, you need the right supplies to do it with!
Some you may be able to find at your local Pet Mega-store, others you will probably need to order online.
If your dog is expecting a litter of puppies it's a good idea to make sure you have some of these handy ahead of time....