All puppies can get 'backed up' now and then, for one reason or another, but if you have a very small, tiny or toy breed pup, his chances of getting constipated are higher than those of a large or giant breed puppy.
Here are some of the most common causes of constipation in puppies :
If you thought it was just cats that got hairballs - think again. Dogs
who groom/lick themselves a lot, especially if they're long haired, can
swallow a lot of fur (watch out for this if you have a dog with
allergies or skin problems or is
an obsessive 'licker'). This hair can get 'balled up' inside your pup,
and it then causes a blockage or slows down the intestinal tract. The result is a constipated puppy!
Eating odd 'stuff'
Puppies will be puppies, and they tend to want to eat everything that's
not nailed down - and some things that are! However, ingesting
inappropriate items can result in a constipated puppy due to an internal
'slow down' or traffic jam. At worst it can cause a complete blockage
(which requires urgent veterinary attention). Crunchy 'bone
treats', rawhide toys/treats or even natural bones can all cause this
Not surprisingly, so can that plastic grocery sac, the contents
of the bathroom trash can, or your best undies that your dog ate this
morning :o) If your pup or dog eats something he shouldn't, watch
carefully for it to 'come out the other end', within 24 - 36
hours. If it doesn't and your pet shows signs of constipation, pain or
distress get him to your vet
for evaluation immediately.
Some medications that your dog takes to treat other conditions can
sometimes be the cause of dog constipation. Anti-histamines (used to
treat allergies) can have this effect, as can over the counter medications
that are used to treat diarrhea (such as Immodium or PeptoBismol). It's
never a good idea to give your pup ANY kind of medication without
clearing it with your veterinarian first. Adverse (or even unexpected)
reactions can occur and it's always better to be safe than sorry.
Parasites Parasites such as worms are more likely to cause diarrhea in puppies than constipation but it can happen. Most puppies have worms at some point, and to some degree, and these are going to cause problems unless treated properly.
Medical Conditions Although puppy constipation is rarely caused by any serious medical issues, it can
happen, and in older dogs it's even more possible. Structural or skeletal abnormalities, hernias, or infection can sometimes cause puppies or dogs of all ages to have difficulty pooping properly. Kidney disease, prostate problems, tumors may cause constipation in adult dogs. Swallowing a foreign object that can't pass through the intestines, could cause a blockage which is life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated quickly.
A serious, often life-threatening condition called Bloat can also cause your puppy or dog to squat and strain, or retch and dry-heave. He may have a distended or hard belly, and pant, pace, whine or collapse. This is a veterinary emergency.
'Mechanical Constipation' or 'Psuedoconstipation'
This is caused by long hair around the dogs' anus/bottom getting
tangled or matted. If it gets bad enough, the hair can prevent bowel
movements, and you have a constipated puppy on your hands.
Surgery Surgery, and the accompanying anesthesia and lack of activity during the recovery period, can cause your pups' digestive system to slow down - this may result in constipation. It's something worth remembering in the days after your pup has been spayed or neutered.
How To Treat A Constipated Puppy
If, in spite of your best efforts, your pup becomes constipated there are some straightforward remedies that should get his bowels moving fairly quickly.
Adding certain things to their diet can often help a constipated puppy feel better.
Here are a few to try:
A simple dog constipation remedy is to add a little canned pumpkin (NOT
the pie filling variety, just good old plain pumpkin) in your pups'
meals can be helpful. Add 1 teaspoon to 1 tablespoon depending on his
size. Pureed pumpkin baby food also works.
Add some extra fiber in the form of Bran, Metamucil, Benefiber or
similar products. About 1/2 teaspoon added to your pups meals for a few
days. If your dog weighs over 50lbs you can use 1 tablespoon instead. 1
teaspoon of oat bran, or 2 teaspoons of Grape Nut flakes added to her
food will work the same way.
Adding some extra oil to your pups diet can help to soften the stools
and help his bowels keep moving along nicely. 1/2 tsp of olive oil added
to his meals works. For more difficult cases, try 1 - 2 teaspoons of
Mineral Oil, but don't do this for longer than 3 or 4 days. Mineral oil
removes Vitamin A from your dog's body and it can be harmful if used for
longer than this.
'Special' Dog Foods Some manufacturers
sell dog food that is specifically formulated with extra fiber to help a
constipated dog or puppy move their bowels regularly. Most foods
contain between 2% and 4% fiber, Solid Gold dry dog food has 5%, and
Hills offer two foods - I/D and W/D. These are available from most
Dogs don't digest cows' milk properly, and in normal circumstances it
causes diarrhea. However, if you have a constipated puppy you can add
1/4 to 1/2 cup of milk to their food or water, or just give it to them
to drink. Do this once a day for a couple of days and it should help
loosen the bowels.
Keeping Long Hair Trimmed
If you have a constipated puppy due to long, tangled or matted hair
around his little bottom, carefully trim it away with small scissors. Be
very careful not to cut the skin. Keeping this hair short in the future
should prevent a recurrence. If your pup has been constipated for a
while, just trimming the hair may not be enough to get his bowels
moving. You may need to also use another dog constipation remedy as
OTC Dog Constipation Remedies
There are a few OTC treatments available for a constipated dog or pup.
To prevent, and eliminate, hairballs that are causing your dog's
constipation, try Laxatone .
It has been specifically formulated to prevent and eliminate those
pesky hairballs, and has a laxative effect to help end your dogs'
Petwellbeing Smooth BM Gold is a totally natural product that can help to relieve canine constipation and also maintain healthy bowel function, without causing your puppy any discomfort.
Constipation is relatively uncommon in dogs, especially puppies. Puppies who are having a hard time defecating should see the veterinarian, because it may be an indicator of a more severe problem.
There are many potential causes for constipation and ongoing or severe constipation doesn’t usually happen ‘just because’. In addition to managing the symptoms of constipation, it is important to identify the underlying problem.
If your pup or dog is constsipated his stools might be firm, dry, chalky, or have an unusual shape.
Older puppies have a tendency to eat things they shouldn’t, and will struggle to defecate in attempts to pass foreign material that has made its way to the large intestine. If they are concurrently vomiting or not eating well, it may be a sign of a gastrointestinal obstruction. Obstruction usually requires surgery and warrants immediate evaluation.
Intestinal parasites or worms are a common cause of diarrhea in puppies, but may occasionally cause constipation. Parasites are very common in puppies, so should be considered as a potential cause for any abnormal defecation.
Some medicines can cause constipation in puppies. Opioid pain medications are one culprit. If your puppy has recently had spay or neuter surgery or has been treated for a traumatic injury, this may be the case.
Over the counter diarrhea medications such as Imodium are designed to slow down the intestinal tract and can easily cause constipation, especially in smaller dogs. I almost never recommend that owners give Imodium for this reason.
Back pain, hip pain, or abdominal pain from recent surgeries may all deter your puppy from posturing to defecate, leading stool to back up. Usually these puppies will show other signs of pain in addition to difficult defecation. They may be limping, standing with a ‘hunched’ appearance, not eating well, or acting generally uncomfortable and restless.
If your puppy has frequent bouts of constipation, an anatomical defect in the colon or rectum should be considered. This may include strictures or diverticulum that hinders the passage of stool.
A narrow pelvic canal can also limit the ability have a normal bowel movement. This can happen due to developmental abnormalities or if the pelvic bones have previously fractured and healed in abnormal positions.
Colitis, or inflammation of the large intestine, is a common problem in puppies. This can happen as a result of stress, GI viruses, dietary changes, or intestinal parasites. Usually colitis results in soft stool or diarrhea, and there may be blood or mucus produced. Dogs with colitis will frequently strain in attempts to defecate, so it is often confused with constipation.
Colitis is usually treated with intestinal antibiotics, probiotics, and bland diets. Stool softeners that are used for constipation would not be very helpful for most cases of colitis.
Intestinal, rectal, or abdominal tumors, hernias, prostatic problems, endocrine diseases, and systemic disease that leads to chronic dehydration are all possible causes of constipation in older dogs.
Dogs that suffer from frequent constipation can even develop megacolon, a motility disorder in which the intestinal muscle does not contract as it should. The large intestine becomes permanently dilated and cannot propel stool as it should. These problems are very uncommon in puppies.
If your puppy is having trouble defecating, he should be seen by the vet. Try to provide a good description of the symptoms and the circumstances. Your vet may want to know the consistency of the stool, the frequency that he attempts to defecate, his diet history, and if he is having any other symptoms.
It is also important to make sure your puppy is urinating normally. Sometimes straining to urinate can be confused for constipation.
Your vet will perform a physical exam and may also perform a rectal exam to check for any masses, strictures, or foreign material. They may run a fecal exam to check for intestinal parasites. Based on the symptoms, they might diagnose your puppy with colitis and treat appropriately. However, if true constipation is suspected, your vet may recommend therapy to relieve the symptoms.
For mild constipation the addition of fiber to the diet may help. Canned pumpkin, over the counter Metamucil or Miralax, or high fiber diets are all options. More severe or chronic cases of constipation may require enemas for evacuation of stool, prescription stool softeners, medications that stimulate intestinal motility, and fluid therapy for rehydration.
These treatments can provide relief, but if your puppy is having frequent episodes of constipation, it is highly recommended to pursue additional testing to find the underlying problem.
Bloodwork, abdominal x-rays, barium contrast studies, ultrasound, or intestinal scoping may all be required to look for anatomic abnormalities or other underlying disorders.
Author:Dr. Megen Teiber, DVM
Constipation Prevention for Puppies & Dogs
Here are some simple things you can do to help prevent your puppy from getting constipated in the first place....
Just like in people, a diet that contains enough fiber will help the
digestive system to function properly. If your pup or dog is prone to
constipation, choose a dog food with a minimum of 4% fiber, 5% is even
better. Solid Gold Dry Dog Food has 5% fiber, and you can also buy
special 'prescription' or high-fiber foods such as Hills I/D or W/D
which have significantly higher fiber content (between 8 and 16%). Hills
Foods are available from your veterinarian. Giving your puppy snacks of
raw carrots, celery, apples or pears can also be beneficial.
Your puppy needs access to fresh water at all times during the day. Aim
for a daily minimum of about one ounce of water per pound of body
weight, in hot weather, a centrally heated/dry environment or if your
dog is very active he'll need more. If your pup has some issues with
slow moving bowels and you can't seem to get him to drink more, you can
always add some warm water to his dry food at one mealtime each day to
get some more fluids into him.
Plenty of exercise is essential to keep your puppy health and happy. If
you have a constipated puppy (or one who tendency towards it),
increasing his exercise and activity level can help. The benefits are
two-fold; firstly, the physical aspects of the exercise help to keep his
digestive system and bowels 'moving along' preventing the sluggishness
that can lead to constipation.
Secondly, long walks or a vigorous game
of 'fetch' or frisbee keep him outside longer and help to give him
plenty of time to eliminate when he has the chance. If you're housebreaking or crate training,
and your pup doesn't do his business while your out, he may try to
'hold it' for too long, and this can cause the colon to slow down and
the feces to get hard and difficult to pass.
Trimming Long Hair
This may sound odd, but sometimes in long haired breeds, the hair
around the puppy's rear end becomes tangled or matted, and it actually
physically prevents the puppy from having a bowel movement. If you have a
constipated puppy who has long hair around his bottom, keeping it
trimmed short will prevent this sort of 'mechanical constipation'.
The bottom line (pun totally intended!)....
your puppy is constipated and you're worried that he may have an
intestinal blockage, bloat, or be in pain/distress then you need to have
him seen by a vet right away.
If he seems happy and healthy apart from the constipation, but you've tried the tips on this page but your pup still can't pass any bowel movements then you need to consult a vet for advice.